# Energy in the state of volume

```Created: 21 May 2013
Published: 11 July 2014
Last updated: 26 July 2022```

# Energy in the state of volume

First lets confirm that mathematics is a great tool. But just because we can write equations does not mean the mathematical results describe physical truth’s.
Use your imagination and common sense and keep in mind: The solution must be time independent! Time has been invented by humanity, it is by definition not a physical property.

For many decades people have been working on energy and try to explain the unexplained. We defined radiation, fundamental particles and quanta etc etc..
Forgetting all about the volume the radiation and matter resides in. That volume of ‘nothing’ which is supposed to fill more than 99% of the total volume.

I thought, it just cannot be that in a universe of vibrating energy the volume is nothing. Just as with recent gravity waves which travel through space. Not space but the volume where all matter and radiation are just traces of less than 1% of the total volume!

# Volume is a state of energy!

#### Volume is energy without radiation and matter. A physical volume is constructed from energy. Without energy there cannot be a physical volume.  Accept this and a lot of phenomena start to make sense.

Definitions

• A physical volume is not the same as a mathematical volume. The volume here is the physical volume.
• Volume is described in different disciplines with many words. Some of them are: vacuum, space, void, nothing ..etc. In this article the word ‘volume’ is used to support the theory / ’thought reasoning’ at this page.
• For those who wish to be able to grab the energy contents of volume the ‘voluton’ is an easy name. A single 1 voluton is 1 eV of volume energy contained/constructed in 1 m3 of volume. So the voluton unit becomes eV/m3 . Maby the abbreviation Em3 or Evolume .
• See the Wiki page on Vacuum energy.

Total energy balance

The total energy balance for the entire universe and for every location in the universe:

Etotal ≡ ΣEvolume + ΣEradiation + ΣEmatter

This seems a solid vice-versa buffer/equilibrium law.

## Properties of the voluton (energy in the state of volume)

Volume will have properties. Some are:

Emission and Absorption

As we all accept any matter above zero degrees Kelvin will emit and absorb radiation. But also volume is emitted en absorbed, by matter and radiation. At very low energy amounts per m3. Only above zero degrees Kelvin the amount of energy gets so high that matter will emit photons continuously.

WHY?

Read the wiki article on ‘Vacuum energy’.

A question still is whether the emission of volume will take place at the speed of light..(carrying photon’s)..

Because of the absorption and emission of the volume-energy the ‘pressure’ of the volume energy field near other condensed forms of energy like matter and photons is lower than further away. Thomas G. Lang already proposed this in his books on the unified fluid dynamics theory of physics.

Elasticity and displacement Already in the 20th century the properties of space were described as a rubber sheet. With visualizations showing stretched membranes. For a reason not clear to me the term ‘space-time’ is used very often. This cannot be correct since physical processes are by definition not connected to human inventions like time.

• Elasticity has to do with stretching and compressing. Volume that is expanding will soak up energy, volume that is compressed will push out energy. When energy is added to volume the volume will grow in size. See here the expansion of space with respect to the decrease in background radiation temperature.
• When energy is extracted from volume, the volume will shrink. See here why the Milky Way galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy are moving towards each other despite the expansion of space. The extraction of energy by the masses of the galaxy’s is greater than the addition of energy due to cooling of the background radiation (and other effects).

Energy Density or Energy Distribution

The density of a volume that is constructed from energy is of course energy density. Energy seems to be the most fluidious fluid there is. With an-isotropic distributions in every direction. Because of the existence of black holes where the energy density is high, the rest of the universe, including stars, have energy densities that are not high. There is always the possibility of new energy passing through energy already present at that volume. Just as radiation or matter can travel through a volume, so can volume-energy.

Curvature

As generally accepted space is curved. Curvature is a property of numerous physical things. Here curvature inside a volume is related to the energy density distribution. Energy, photons and matter passing through a volume interact with the energy present already and with each other.

If there were no ‘interactions’ than moving energy would not follow the curvature of space. Some ‘interaction’ must change the direction of movement of the energy. Maybe we should think about the energy following the ‘path’s of lowest energy’. Going straight ahead would cost more energy. Or what we see as ‘being curved’/ ‘changed energy’, feels from the radiation point of view as ‘going straight ahead’ / ‘no changed energy’.

But what would change it’s direction of movement? Some interaction. But what kind of interaction?

Permittivity and permeability

In today’s theory the properties of ‘volume with no matter in it’ are described by the Maxwell’s equations; which have unified the permittivity of free space ε0 and the permeability of free space μ0.

Why should these ‘properties’ be constant? In the presence/absence of other energy forms like radiation, matter, etc energy distributions dynamically change and thus properties dynamically change.

The following reasoning to support this thought: We can think the Hydrogen atom as being the constellation of the earth an the moon. Just imagine, when a rocket flies from the earth to the moon, does it fly through space? Yes it does, but in between the moon and the earth it will be different space than interstellar space. Some properties of outer space in Wiki.

The same reasoning can be followed for when a photon would pass through an atom, does it travel through vacuum? Yes it does, but:

– the vacuum inside the atom has other properties than outside the atom/inside the atomic grid.
– the vacuum between the atoms is different than outside the atomic grid of the matter.

purely because of the presence/absence of other radiation, matter, etc.

In addition, when matter contains 99% free volume between the molecules:

– What about the ‘energy density’ of the volume in between the molecules/particles?
– What about the values of permittivity ε and the permeability μ in between the molecules/particles?

## Observations

Observations leading to the above are, among others, the following:

1. Space expands and cools down. In other words, (1) the radiation travelling through space has today a lower frequency (AND energy!!) than before and (2) the volume of space expands every day. Has the energy been absorbed by the expansion of the volume of space?
2. When expansion is forced on a gas or liquid, it cools. In other words, the radiation emitted by the liquid/gas will have a lower frequency(AND energy!!) then before the forced expansion. Where did the missing energy go?? Inside the delta ‘volume’?
3. A metal sphere expands when heated, and shrinks when cooled. When energy is added to the metal molecules, it is also added to the vacuum volume and this increases in size.

Because 99% of the volume of matter is only volume, the expansion of matter seems an absorption of energy into the volume, resulting in an increased volume where atoms move at a higher speed. This supply of energy is delivered by radiation and subsequent the frequency of passing photons drops when they give a part of their energy to the vacuum and part to radiation and matter.
This is not cause and effect but the one cannot occur without the other.
When a photon hits an atom and it wants to start moving more it needs more volume. That extra volume needs energy to be created end to exist.

Cooling/Contraction/’Curvature Increase’ is ‘pulling energy out’ of the volume, thus the frequency of passing photons increase, or photons are created etc.

So we are looking for 2 phenomena with respect to photons:

• The emission/creation OR absorbtion/destruction of EM radiation.
• Adding energy to (blue-shift) AND extracting energy  from (red-shift) passing EM-radiation.

Why  this makes  sense? Because we all accept that during the expansion of space the big-bang background radiation has red-shifted. And when a photon shifts to the red, it’s frequency drops.

So where has the lost energy:  δE = h * δf  gone to???
What kind of interactions make a passing photon loose/win energy in which amount?

The vacuum seems to be absorbing energy from the photons to increase it’s size. It gets stretched like a rubber band and the energy necessary is taken from the passing photons which reduce their frequency/energy. Thus the location of dark energy is inside the volume.

It looks strange to see expanding space with dropping frequencies of the radiation travelling through it. But when it is seen as a transfer of energy from the radiation to the volume of space then it is fully acceptable.

So, vacuum properties seem dynamic. Depending on how much contamination’s ( radiation or matter etc) are present. Vacuum volume must be the physical location where dark energy is located.

1/(ε00)= c02 is maybe equal to 1/(εwaterwater)= c2water

Lets check.

The speed of light from Wikipedia: c0 = 299,792,458 m/s
The speed of light in water comes from Florida State University. cwater = 225.000.000 m/s.
The relative electric permittivity of water from Wikipedia: 1,77
The relative magnetic permeability of water from Surrey University: 1,0.

Calculating gives (299,792,458)2  / (225,000,000)2 = 1.7753..

Two precautions: I do not have academic access to the measurements so I have to presume these numbers are ok. These numbers may, just as I did, also be calculated instead of measured.

Also when one thinks about ‘Heisenberg’s energy from nothing for a short time’.  When space is compressed the energy is forced/pulled out. And photons may appear from ‘nothing’. Not from nothing! Energy never dies nor is ever created. It is just transformed into another physical state. From volume-state to photon-state and vice versa.
Also the reverse situation ‘expanding volume from passing energy’ can be accepted. Like when you squeeze a water filled sponge, the water flows out. When the sponge is forcefully expanded, more water flows in. This is not a cause and effect relation. This seems a solid vice-versa buffer/equilibrium law.

## Fundamental interactions

From Wikipedia we find that fundamental interactions are: gravity, weak, electromagnetic and strong. By reviewing these forces the energy inside the volume seem to play an important role.

Gravity

Matter attracts matter. The famous Newton’s Law of Gravitation has been around many years. But matter seems to be nothing for about 99% of the volume. Why is the gravitational force bounded to the matter and not to the matrix ‘volume’ the matter resides in?

In the presence of matter the energy contained by the volume seems to be lower than in the presence of no matter. The more matter the stronger the bond and the less energy inside the volume between the matter. As if the energy in the matter and/or radiation is draining the energy from the volume. See here the explanation for the weak and strong interactions.

Just like a volume of low air pressure attracts air from volumes of higher pressure. Thus wind is born.

When two volumes of low energy pressure reside in a larger volume of high energy pressure then the energy will start to flow towards the volumes of low pressure. Thus just in between the two low energy volumes the energy will flow away into two directions, the volume will shrink and the distance between the two volumes will shrink.

So gravity seems to be connected to ‘low pressure energy levels’ inside matter in combination with flowing ‘high pressure energy’ and shrinking of the volume in between the spheres. The more matter in the volume the lower the amount of energy in the volume between the matter. It will be absorbed by the matter. The most extreme case of matter with no energy in the volume in between must be a black hole.

Remember that matter always radiates/emits energy at a temperature above 0 Kelvin. It will stay at constant temperature when the energy emitted equals the energy absorbed. There is no reason why the energy emitted also has to be absorbed in the form of radiation. Any form of absorbed energy can in the right circumstances be transformed into any form of emitted energy. Eh, .. really??

What is the connection between vacuum volume, energy and inertia?

The photon relation between energy and inertia is given by the formula:

E = p * c

The relation between vacuum properties and the speed of light are given by:

1/(ε00)= c2

E2 = p2 / (ε00)

Rearranging and assuming vacuum properties are NOT constant gives:

( E / p ) * √(ε*μ)  ≡ 1

The ‘inertia p of the energy E’ (= photon) together  with vacuum properties ε*μ are a physical identity.

This implies that when a photon with constant E enters in a region with lower (ε*μ) in the volume the impuls p of the constant energy E must also be lower. To uphold the relation between energy E, impuls p and the speed of light c, the latter must become lower. Like in a glass fiber where the speed of light is approximately 2/3*c .

Would a change in impuls together with a constant speed of light c would make a change direction necessary to conserve overall 3D impuls?
Or would a change in the direction of the speed of light be needed to conserve impuls?

Thermodynamic points of view

Adding energy from an external source to a solid matter will increase the energy levels of:

1. The core of the atoms.
2. The electrons orbiting and travelling the cores.
3. The properties of the volume inside the atoms.
4. The properties of the volume in between the atoms.
5. The EM radiation travelling inside the ‘atomic grid’.
6. ..??

Energy observations bring us to the area of thermodynamics. The PVT state of solids, fluids and gasses. When matter contains 99% free volume then the PVT state is a state of the volume contaminated with energy, radiation and particles.

Look at the boiling point of pure H2O, 100 °C. Contaminating the water with salt will change the boiling point. Energy transfers will change due to extra contamination’s.

This would also comply with the finding of the reduced Van der Waals equation. This equation is valid for all fluids. For ’the same state of the volume’ between the molecules, not for the different fluid molecules. The different fluid molecules create different contamination’s and different thermodynamic critical values.

Also look at a conventional explosion. When solids are converted to gas. The force is tremendous. But the amount of matter does not change. The amount of ‘volume the matter needs’ changes with amazing speeds to many times more the original volume. It seems not only the matter itself is transformed into another shape, it seems part of the energy is transferred into a huge amount of volume.

Another fact is the Law of Avogrado and the Molar Volume. These law’s states that all gasses at ‘normal’ low concentrations at the same pressure and temperature have the same volume. The distance between the molecules is very large. The volume of the matter can be seen as a contamination of the vacuum. From the WIKI page we find:

The molar volume of an ideal gas at 100 kPa (1 bar) is

22.710 980(38) dm3/mol at 0 °C
24.789 598(42) dm3/mol at 25 °C

Thus when the radiation equilibrium rises with 25K(elvin) the volume increases 2.08 dm3  . Thus not more matter, not more pressure(kinetic energy of atoms), but at 25 °C we do get more energy in: